Needwood Baptist

Needwood Baptist Church, Glynn County, Georgia
Needwood Baptist Church, Glynn County, Georgia

This church was organized in 1866 as Broadfield Baptist Church, located on the nearby Broadfield plantation in a south Georgia coastal location near Brunswick.  The congregation soon moved to the current spot and the church was built in stages, with the oldest parts dating from the 1870s and the towers added about ten years later.  The front porch area was closed in some time around 1930.  There is also a one-room school that provided elementary education from 1907 until desegregation in the 1960s.  The buildings are considered examples of early African-American vernacular architecture and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

There was an interesting historical summary of the establishment of former slave churches in the south on the National Park Service site for this listing, so for convenience, I’m adding a portion of it here-

The Needwood Baptist Church formation and history is an example of religious development of African Americans in context of the Plantation Rice Culture. Early settlers found Coastal Georgia and South Carolina suitable for rice cultivation and began development of an extensive system of rice plantations. Slave labor was a necessary element of this system and Africans were imported for this purpose. Slaves were  encouraged to become Christians by their white masters. African slaves in Savannah formed their own churches by 1822. In more rural areas of Coastal Georgia, they were members of the white-dominated churches and worshiped with the whites in segregated pews. In the 1830s and 1840s southern churchmen launched a movement to create plantation missions. Rice plantation slaves were the last to be confronted with the Christian religion. This was promoted as a means to control the African-American population which well out-numbered the whites in the plantation areas. This movement was largely successful among the rice plantations because the African-American preachers were accepted by the slave population. Although African-American slaves were aware that whites used religion as a form of social control, they preferred the less formal services held by members of their own race. Elements of Africanisms become part of the services, such as the “ring shout.” The “ring shout” is a religious dance where men, women, boys, and girls formed a ring and began chanting and shuffling, always in a counterclockwise direction.

The Civil War (1861-1865) disrupted the churches as well as the social and economic order of Coastal Georgia. With the offshore islands held by Union troops and the Union Navy blockading the ports, much of the coastal area was evacuated. 

Slaves at the Broadfield and the Needwood Plantations, as well as others on nearby plantations, were mostly evacuated during the Civil War. They returned to the plantation lands after the war as freed slaves. Since they no longer were controlled by the whites to attend their church or the plantation churches, these freedmen formed their own church. Within the Baptist faith, they proceeded to form their own African-American Church Associations. The white churches seemed at a loss to understand the withdrawal of African-American churches from their associations. The Sunbury Baptist Association Executive Committee passed the following resolution in 1874:

“Whereas, for more than fifty years prior to the late civil war the colored churches of the Baptist denomination within the bounds of the Sunbury Baptist Association enjoyed, by delegation, equal representation with the white churches of that body, but for reasons unknown to us, have, since the war with drawn and formed association of their own And whereas, we still entertain for our colored brethren the same sentiments of Christian regard we then did and cherish the remembrance of them in the past as zealous co- workers with us in the advancement of our Lord and Master’s cause and now feel a deep interest in their civil, intellectual and religious welfare. Be it Resolved, That this association, and each church composing it, at such times and in such terms as they may deem proper, …pledge…harmonious co-operation in all matters touching our denominational interests.”

 

Trinity C.M.E.

Trinity C.M.E. Church, Augusta, Georgia (Richmond County)
Trinity C.M.E. Church, Augusta, Georgia (Richmond County)

When I first saw a photo of this old church online, it was in a newspaper article that said it was scheduled to be demolished.  So I made a point to get to Augusta, Georgia before that happened.  As of now, it looks like there are still attempts to save the building, but its fate is uncertain.  Trinity Christian Methodist Episcopal was established in 1840 and this building was built in the 1890s, according to information online.  That conflicts with the cornerstone on the church that says that it was rebuilt in 1921, so I’m unclear on the timeline.  In the 1990s, it was discovered that there was underground contamination in the area from a nearby gas plant and the congregation moved in 1998.  Since then, the building has been unused and continues to deteriorate.

 

Haven Memorial Methodist Episcopal

Haven Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, Waynesboro, Georgia
Haven Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, Waynesboro, Georgia (Burke County)

Located near the railroad line in Waynesboro, Georgia, is the old wood-framed church of Haven Memorial Methodist Episcopal.  The building was constructed in 1888 and has Gothic Revival detail, including pointed arches.  The church was associated with Haven Academy, which was a school founded just after the Civil War to serve the former slaves.  It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1996.

 

Jerusalem Missionary Baptist

Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church, Augusta, Georgia
Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church, Augusta, Georgia (Richmond County)

Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church is located in Augusta, Georgia’s downtown area.  A group of former slaves organized the church in 1867 and this building dates from 1912. A more detail history of the church is included at the church page – Church History

St. Paul C.M.E.

St. Paul CME Church, Hancock County, Georgia
St. Paul CME Church, Hancock County, Georgia

This rural wood frame church in Georgia was organized in 1857 and has an interesting history.  A wealthy plantation owner had a relationship with one of his slaves and ultimately their daughter inherited all of his property (17,000 acres) after the Georgia Supreme Court ruled in her favor over other decedents disputing his will.  At the time, she became the wealthiest African-American woman in the U.S.  The other slaves of the plantation owner had started this church before the Civil War and were deeded the property in 1870.  This building’s history dates from either the 1870s or 1880s – a definite year isn’t recorded.